ByÂ HOWARD W. FRENCHÂ
Copyright The New York Times
Almost from the birth of â€œdevelopmentâ€ as a concept in modern political economy, poverty has been regarded as a problem in search of technical solutions. The key, weâ€™re told, is finding the correct mixture of policies to promote agriculture, reform financial markets or improve health. With the right mix of prescriptions, results come down mostly to Âimplementation.
The emphasis on technical solutions, from tariff regimes to industrial policy, has empowered experts, who have gradually come to constitute a formidable self-reinforcing constituency. Even when they disagree on the details, as often happens, they seem unanimous in their belief that what poor countries most desperately need is outside advice.
In his bracingly iconoclastic â€œThe Tyranny of Experts: Economists, Dictators, and the Forgotten Rights of the Poor,â€ William Easterly weaves together a number of sophisticated arguments to explain why this is all wrong. Easterly, a New York University economist and author of â€œThe White Manâ€™s Burden: Why the Westâ€™s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good,â€ has earned his skepticism the hard way. He frequently describes himself as a recovering expert, a sly reference to his career at the World Bank, which receives withering criticism throughout.
The book ranges widely around the globe, far back in history and across academic disciplines. One moment, the author is expounding on the importance of the 12th-century Battle of Legnano, in northern Italy, a milestone on the road to individual rights. In the next, heâ€™s describing the causes of persistent poverty in Colombia, the powerfully enduring legacies of the Atlantic slave trade on West African societies, or the braided histories of European decolonization and the American civil rights movement.
A book so full of learned digressions could feel disjointed. But Easterlyâ€™s stories unfailingly reinforce a select number of crucial themes, the boldest being that the people of the so-called underdeveloped world have been systematically betrayed by the technocrats in charge of the global development agenda. â€œThe technocratic approach ignores what this book will establish as the real cause of poverty â€” the unchecked power of the state against poor people without rights,â€ he writes.
â€œThe Tyranny of Expertsâ€ opens with an account of an outrage supposed to have taken place in rural Ohio in 2010, when 20,000 local farmers were dispossessed of their land at gunpoint, their homes and crops burned to make way for a commercial forestry. For the space of a page, the reader wonders if the story is true, and if so, why sheâ€™s never heard of it. Itâ€™s because the author changed the location for effect. The dispossession occurred in Uganda, which is ruled by Yoweri Museveni, an autocrat long promoted by the West. The forestryâ€™s funding came partly from the World Bank, which had recently published a major document on the role of government in development that, Easterly reports, characteristically offered little or no role to â€œliberty, freedom, equality, rights or democracy.â€ He explains the Westâ€™s fondness for autocrats saying it comes from the misguided belief that they are best equipped to achieve results in the rough and chaotic conditions in poorer countries.
Easterlyâ€™s other major claim is that technocratic advisers attach little importance to the historical background of the countries they work on. He offers the example of the World Bank, in 1949, whipping up a 950-page development plan for Colombia in less than a year, in which recommendations werenâ€™t specific to that country. These advisers also ignore evidence saying the greatest benefits to a society come from the spontaneous, uncoordinated actions of mostly small actors whose talents are allowed to flourish, as opposed to top-down initiatives involving the state or outside donors.
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